In popular discourse, the word “sustainability” is often associated with environmental friendliness and resource conservation. However, when it comes to industries like apparel manufacturing, sustainability is a multi-faceted concept encompassing not just the ecological impact, but also the social and economic conditions under which garments are produced.
The apparel industry is one of the world’s largest employers, providing jobs for millions of people, especially in developing countries. At the same time, it is notorious for its poor labor conditions, with issues ranging from low wages and long hours to unsafe working environments and child labor.
The Definition of Sustainability in the Apparel Industry
The concept of sustainability is often simplified to mean ‘environmentally friendly’, but in the context of the apparel industry (and broader industry), it’s more accurate to describe it as a three-pillar model consisting of environmental, social, and economic sustainability. This holistic view is also known as the Triple Bottom Line approach, originally coined by John Elkington in 1994.
This refers to the industry’s impact on the planet, covering aspects such as water usage, carbon emissions, waste production, and the use of harmful chemicals. For example, it’s estimated that the global fashion industry is responsible for about 10% of annual global carbon emissions, more than all international flights and maritime shipping combined.
This involves the conditions under which workers in the apparel industry are employed. It looks at factors like labor rights, working conditions, fair wages, and the prevention of exploitative practices like child labor and forced labor. According to the International Labour Organization, more than 25 million people worldwide are victims of forced labor, many of whom are in the textile and clothing industry.
This aspect of sustainability looks at the economic viability and resilience of the industry, considering elements like fair trade, ethical sourcing, and the economic wellbeing of all the actors involved in the supply chain. The goal is for the industry to be competitive and profitable, but not at the expense of people and the planet.
Achieving sustainability in the apparel industry thus means striking a balance between these three pillars. It requires the industry to minimize its environmental impact, respect and promote human rights and labor standards, and ensure economic viability and fairness throughout the supply chain.
The Current State of Worker Treatment in the Apparel Industry
The apparel industry, a cornerstone of the global economy, relies heavily on human labor. From the cultivation of raw materials to the finishing touches on a garment, each step involves human hands. However, the conditions under which many of these workers operate are far from ideal.
Low Wages and Poor Working Conditions
It’s an unfortunate reality that many workers in the global apparel industry are paid less than a living wage. According to the Clean Clothes Campaign, garment workers in countries like Bangladesh, India, and Cambodia earn just a fraction of the living wage. This means they struggle to afford basic necessities, let alone save or invest for the future.
Working conditions often leave much to be desired, too. Long hours, unhealthy environments, and high-pressure targets are commonplace, leading to physical and mental health issues. The 2013 Rana Plaza disaster in Bangladesh, where over 1,100 garment workers died after the factory building they were in collapsed, brought international attention to the hazardous conditions that many apparel industry workers face.
Lack of Labor Rights and Representation
Many workers in the apparel industry lack basic labor rights. Freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining can be suppressed, making it difficult for workers to voice their concerns or negotiate better conditions. The International Trade Union Confederation’s 2020 Global Rights Index highlighted Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Colombia among the ten worst countries for workers’ rights.
Child Labor and Forced Labor
The International Labour Organization estimates that 152 million children are involved in child labor worldwide, with many employed in the apparel industry. Forced labor, too, is a serious concern, particularly in the cotton production sector. The U.S. Department of Labor’s 2020 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor includes cotton from 18 countries.
Ethical Issues in the Apparel Industry
The current state of worker treatment in the apparel industry raises critical ethical questions. These ethical issues revolve around fundamental human rights, social justice, and corporate responsibility.
Human Rights and Social Justice
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948, establishes the right to just and favorable working conditions, including fair remuneration and the right to form and join trade unions. The widespread low wages, poor working conditions, and suppression of labor rights in the apparel industry represent a clear breach of these fundamental human rights.
These practices also raise issues of social justice. The wealth generated by the apparel industry is unevenly distributed, with workers—the very people who make the production of garments possible—often living in poverty. This inequality is further exacerbated by the fact that the majority of garment workers are women, many of whom are also responsible for unpaid care work at home.
Companies operating in the apparel industry have a moral and legal responsibility to respect human rights and labor standards. This responsibility extends throughout their supply chains, regardless of whether the workers are directly employed by the company or by a supplier or subcontractor.
However, the complexity and opacity of many apparel supply chains make it difficult to hold companies accountable for labor abuses. Some brands argue that they have no control over the working conditions in their supplier factories, thereby shirking their responsibility. This “willful ignorance” raises serious ethical questions about corporate accountability and responsibility.
While this article focuses on the social aspect of apparel sustainability, it’s worth noting that environmental ethics are also a key concern. The environmental impact of the apparel industry, such as water pollution, carbon emissions, and waste, affects communities around the world, particularly those in low-income countries where much of the production takes place. This environmental injustice further compounds the social and economic challenges faced by workers in the industry.
Case Studies: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly
Analyzing specific situations within the apparel industry can provide a clearer understanding of the ethical issues and potential solutions. Here, we present three case studies that illustrate the range of practices within the industry.
Case Study 1: The Rana Plaza Disaster (The Ugly)
The Rana Plaza disaster in Bangladesh in 2013 is one of the most tragic industrial accidents in history. The eight-story building, which housed several garment factories, collapsed, killing over 1,100 workers and injuring many more. Investigations found that the building was structurally unsound, and workers’ warnings about cracks in the walls were ignored. The disaster highlighted the dire working conditions in the apparel industry and sparked international calls for improved safety standards.
Case Study 2: The Uyghur Forced Labor Crisis (The Bad)
Recent reports have exposed the use of forced labor in the Xinjiang region of China, where an estimated one million Uyghurs and other ethnic minority groups have been detained in re-education camps. Many are reportedly forced to work in factories and cotton fields. Xinjiang produces around 20% of the world’s cotton, and several major apparel brands have been linked to this supply chain, raising serious ethical concerns about complicity in human rights abuses.
Case Study 3: Patagonia’s Fair Trade Certified Program (The Good)
Patagonia, an outdoor apparel company, has been a pioneer in sustainability and ethical labor practices. Through its Fair Trade Certified program, the company pays a premium for every product made in a fair trade factory, which goes directly to the workers. As of 2020, Patagonia had 75,000 workers in 10 countries involved in the program. While it’s not a panacea, the program represents a positive step towards better worker treatment in the apparel industry.
Solutions and Initiatives for Ethical Worker Treatment
Addressing the ethical issues in the apparel industry requires a multi-pronged approach, involving governments, corporations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and consumers. Here are some key initiatives and solutions that can drive improvements in worker treatment.
Government Regulations and International Agreements
Governments can enact and enforce labor laws that protect workers’ rights and ensure safe working conditions. International labor agreements and conventions, such as those developed by the International Labour Organization, can provide a framework for these laws.
On a global scale, trade agreements can include clauses on labor standards, and countries can use trade sanctions or preferences to incentivize improvements in worker treatment. However, enforcement of these regulations and agreements is often a challenge, particularly in countries where governance is weak.
Corporate Responsibility and Accountability
Companies in the apparel industry can take responsibility for worker treatment in their supply chains, beyond just their direct employees. This can involve conducting regular audits of suppliers, ensuring transparency, and taking corrective action when abuses are identified.
Initiatives like the Fair Labor Association’s Workplace Code of Conduct and the Ethical Trading Initiative’s Base Code provide standards for companies to follow. Some companies also adopt fair trade or living wage commitments, like Patagonia’s Fair Trade Certified program.
Empowering workers to stand up for their rights is crucial. This can involve supporting the formation of trade unions, providing education and training for workers, and creating mechanisms for workers to report abuses without fear of retaliation.
Consumer Awareness and Action
Consumers have a key role to play in promoting ethical worker treatment. By choosing to buy from brands that treat their workers fairly and shunning those that don’t, consumers can exert pressure on companies to improve their labor practices.
Initiatives like the Fashion Revolution’s #WhoMadeMyClothes campaign and apps like Good On You can help consumers make informed choices.
The Impact of Consumer Awareness and Choice
Consumer awareness and choice can significantly influence the apparel industry’s labor practices. As more consumers become concerned about who makes their clothes and under what conditions, they can use their purchasing power to support brands that uphold ethical labor practices.
The Power of Consumer Demand
Consumer demand can drive significant change in the apparel industry. When consumers consistently choose to support brands that are transparent about their supply chains and actively work to treat workers fairly, they incentivize other brands to do the same. This is the concept of “voting with your wallet.”
The Rise of Ethical Fashion
The growing consumer interest in ethical fashion has led to the rise of brands that prioritize sustainability and fair labor practices. These brands often provide detailed information about their supply chains, pay their workers a living wage, and invest in safer and more humane working conditions. Examples include Patagonia, People Tree, and Everlane, among others.
Awareness Campaigns and Tools
Awareness campaigns like Fashion Revolution’s #WhoMadeMyClothes and documentaries like “The True Cost” have brought attention to the ethical issues in the apparel industry and empowered consumers to make more informed choices.
Tools and apps such as Good On You and the Higg Index also help consumers assess the ethical credentials of different brands, making it easier to support those that prioritize worker treatment.
Challenges and Limitations
While consumer awareness and choice can drive change, there are also limitations. Not all consumers have access to or can afford ethical fashion brands. Moreover, the lack of transparency in the apparel industry can make it difficult for consumers to know the true impact of their purchases.
In addition, consumer demand alone cannot solve systemic issues such as low wages and poor working conditions. These require broader changes in industry practices, government regulations, and international labor standards.
In conclusion, while consumer awareness and choice are key pieces of the puzzle, achieving ethical worker treatment in the apparel industry requires a comprehensive, multi-stakeholder approach.