The Essential Pre-Production Processes for Garment Manufacturing

by Odmya
0 comment 14 minutes read

Behind every gorgeous garment that struts down the runway or hangs in stores lies an often underappreciated process – the pre-production planning that sets the stage for manufacturing excellence. Though the glossy finished product rightfully gets much of the glory, it is during pre-production that the hidden work of turning a design into a tangible product occurs.

Pre-production includes all the critical steps that occur between the initial conception of a garment design and the mass production of that garment. It is the crucial planning phase where brands define the specifications, source materials, create prototypes, confirm sizing, and implement quality control measures. Overlooking or rushing these processes can spell disaster down the line, from poor garment construction to massive profit losses. That’s why pre-production is the secret weapon of successful fashion companies.

Done right, pre-production allows brands to perfect products, avoid costly mistakes, establish manufacturing workflows, and set quality benchmarks. In a fiercely competitive industry where getting products quickly to market is key, pre-production provides the foundation for factories and brands to work cohesively to deliver high-quality garments on schedule. For startups launching a clothing line or established companies producing new collections, managing pre-production strategically can make or break the success of a launch.

This article will illuminate the vital steps of pre-production and planning in garment manufacturing. We’ll examine the product development processes, material sourcing, prototyping, costing, specifications, and quality control measures that set up both brands and factories for manufacturing excellence. With insight into the pre-production best practices of today’s leading apparel companies, brands can elevate their own planning to deliver quality products that delight customers and boost their bottom line.

Design and Pattern Making

The creative design process lays the foundation for the entire pre-production process to come. Design and its technical execution through pattern making are the genesis of any new garment.

Design processes vary by company, but typically begin with researching trends, brainstorming ideas, and developing fashion illustrations or garment concept sketches. Designers analyze runway shows, street style, consumer preferences, and past sales data to identify styles and silhouettes that will resonate in upcoming seasons. These insights inform the aesthetic and functional characteristics of new garments.

Once a design direction is chosen, fashion flats or spec sheets are created showing front, back, side views, and styling details. Creative teams review designs to perfect proportions, shape, and fit. Technical designers then begin drafting paper patterns from measurements and fit specifications.

Creating accurate patterns is crucial for garments to fit correctly on varying body shapes. Pattern makers use blocks based on standard sizing to draft patterns from scratch or manipulate existing patterns through grading. Grading increases or decreases pattern dimensions proportionally across size ranges. Well-graded patterns ensure consistent fit.

Patterns are prototyped in muslin on dress forms and live models to validate fit, make refinements, and create the master pattern. Once perfected, the master will serve as the basis for all graded sizes. Technical specifications like seam allowances, notches, and grain lines are added to patterns before sending digitized versions to factories for mass production.

Thoughtful design and pattern making gives garments the optimal shape, proportion and fit to align with a brand’s aesthetic. The meticulous work at this stage enables all subsequent pre-production and manufacturing processes.

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Sourcing Fabrics and Trims

Fabric selection and sourcing is one of the most crucial pre-production steps. The characteristics and quality of fabrics dictate the way a garment looks, feels and performs. Without the right fabrics, even the most beautiful designs will fall flat.

The fabric sourcing process begins by identifying the optimal textiles for each garment design. Factors like garment use, desired aesthetics, durability needs, care requirements, and cost are considered. Natural fibers like cotton and silk have distinct drape and sheen, while synthetic fibers like polyester add durability and stretch. Fabric weight, hand feel, opacity, and construction are evaluated through swatch testing.

With fabric criteria defined, textile suppliers are sourced globally through online platforms, trade shows, or existing relationships. The best suppliers provide transparent pricing, sustainability data, compliance certifications, and consistent quality control. Negotiating pricing in bulk quantities can maximize cost savings.

Fabrics are reviewed through comprehensive testing. Physical properties like tensile strength, pilling resistance, and colorfastness are evaluated in labs according to industry standards. Approved fabric is purchased in sufficient yardage for all planned garment sizes.

Trims like zippers, buttons, lace and embroidery are also sourced from trusted vendors. Brands develop custom branded trim details or utilize stock options to complement their fabrics and designs. Careful trim selection enhances garment quality and appearance.

With extensive fabric and trim testing and sourcing, brands procure the raw materials needed for manufacturing excellence. The materials ultimately determine the success or failure of a garment, making this a foundational pre-production process.

Costing and Pricing

Determining the production costs and eventual pricing of garments is a complex and critical pre-production process. Accurate costing enables brands to set prices that yield profit while remaining aligned with customer expectations.

Costing starts by analyzing all the raw material expenses, including fabrics, trims, labels and hangtags. The costs of these physical components are relatively straightforward to calculate.

However, the more challenging elements to cost are the labor, overhead, and miscellaneous expenses. Labor costs are estimated based on the time and effort required for the unique construction methods of each garment style. Industry labor rates in manufacturing countries are benchmarked. Overhead accounts for factory energy, equipment, shipping, duties and other indirect costs. An additional margin is added to account for defects, damages, and production inefficiencies.

Once the total production cost is tallied, the brand then sets pricing for wholesale, distributors or direct retail. Standard industry formulas like keystone pricing are applied which doubles the production cost. Competitor pricing, brand positioning, and geographic market are evaluated to set competitive yet profitable pricing. Profit margins typically range from 2-4X production costs.

Throughout sampling and production, costing undergoes continual review. As fabrics are sourced and pricing firmed up, cost sheets are updated. Cost reduction opportunities like material substitution or process optimization are explored. The goal is to achieve the best quality product at the optimal price point for profitability. Adjustments continue even through sale cycles to perfect costing.

Meticulous cost analysis and strategic pricing are make-or-break factors for achieving profitability. The costing phase sets brands up for sustainable success if done thoroughly.

Creating Spec Sheets and Tech Packs

With materials sourced and costing complete, brands compile all product details into technical spec sheets and packs to clearly guide factory partners.

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Spec sheets provide manufacturing partners with all the key product information in one place. They include materials data, construction specifications, labeling, packaging and compliance requirements. Detailed drawings showcase front, back and side product views, along with close-ups of special details like pocket shapes or stitching.

Beyond spec sheets, many brands create tech packs to further communicate manufacturing instructions. Tech packs compile spec sheets along with all related technical documents needed for production. This includes things like:

  • Bill of Materials – listing all component materials, trims, care labels and hangtags
  • Material swatches – fabric, button, lace samples
  • Approved patterns and graded size markers
  • Graphic placements for prints, embroidery or other details
  • Size charts and measurement guides
  • Packaging and polybag requirements
  • Quality control benchmarks and testing protocols

The depth of detail in tech packs gives factory technical teams everything needed to meet production requirements. They provide a roadmap for manufacturing while allowing collaboration and feedback during sampling.

Clear specifications set both the factory and brand up for success. They ensure no details get lost in translation and help factories achieve the specific construction and finishing techniques desired. Complete tech packs get all parties on the same page for a smooth production journey.

Sampling and Fit Approvals

Before full production begins, samples and prototypes are created to finalize fit, construction, and design details.

Samples are produced using the exact planned fabrics and trims. Factories follow the patterns and specifications in the tech pack to sew samples reflecting finished quality. When executed properly, problems can be identified and resolved before expensive mass production begins.

Once samples are received, brands conduct thorough evaluations. Design and technical teams inspect construction methods, measure garment dimensions, and rigorously test quality. Trying samples on models checks the fit across body types. Photos of models are taken for fit analysis and design reviews.

Feedback from sample evaluations gets compiled in updated tech packs. Needed changes to fabrics, patterns, specifications or other elements are communicated to factories. Revised patterns and materials get sent for a second round of samples addressing all tweaks.

Multiple sampling rounds continue iteratively until all details are perfected. Common changes include:

  • Adjusting pattern grading across sizes if fit is inconsistent
  • Modifying seam allowances or stitch types for improved construction
  • Substituting inferior fabrics or trims if quality is unsatisfactory
  • Correcting issues like improper logo placement or garment labeling

Approving samples is a milestone signaling manufacturing can begin. Once aligned on fit, fabrication, construction and design, factory teams have everything they need to deliver flawless final products.

Investing time in rigorous sampling prevents problems from arising mid-production. The sampling process ensures brands can deliver a quality product true to their vision before significant time and money is spent on full manufacturing.

Sizing and Grading

Creating patterns in a full range of sizes is critical for inclusive, well-fitting garments. Sizing and grading during pre-production ensures optimal fit across body types.

Sizing begins by determining the full size range based on target demographics. Standard size charts provide an initial guide. But many brands customize charts based on collected customer data, fitting sessions, and sales by size.

Developing graded patterns starts with a standard size set, often size 8 for women’s wear or size 40 for men’s. The fit, shape and dimensions of the base size are perfected through sampling.

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Once the fit is approved, pattern dimensions are graded out through size ranges. Drafting software grades patterns up and down proportionally from the base. Professional graders also manually refine curves and adjust details between sizes.

Well-executed grading maintains the original garment proportions. As sizes increase, all elements like darts, pleats, and pocket shapes change proportionally. Consistent visual appearance and fit are retained across the size range.

Alternate grade rules may be created for different product groups like tops, bottoms and dresses based on where more ease is needed between sizes. Companies also grade between patterns for short, regular, and tall lengths.

Approving graded patterns is a crucial precursor to cutting production fabric. Verifying alignment of sizing, fit, proportions, and aesthetics across the range ensures every customer can have a quality experience with the brand. This level of inclusivity stems from the thoughtful sizing and grading processes of pre-production.

Quality Control Preparations

Robust quality control is crucial for identifying and resolving any issues before finished garments reach customers. Implementing testing protocols and benchmarks during pre-production is key to success.

Pre-production quality control focuses on setting clear guidelines for manufacturing partners to align with throughout production. Quality expectations for materials, construction, dimensional accuracy, and appearance details are outlined.

Key pre-production quality control steps include:

  • Establishing defect tolerances – Acceptable thresholds for issues like loose threads, dye stains, and needle holes that can be automatically flagged for repair.
  • Defining inspection points – Mandatory checks after critical stages like fabric cutting, sewing, finishing, pressing and packaging.
  • Implementing product testing – Testing performance metrics like colorfastness, dimensional stability, and durability using industry standard lab equipment.
  • Auditing factories – Visiting production facilities to validate compliance with safety, labor, and quality standards.
  • Reviewing machinery – Assessing that factory equipment is properly maintained and calibrated for high-quality output.
  • Confirming certifications – Reviewing required ethical, environmental, and regulatory certifications are in place.
  • Training personnel – Educating factory teams on quality protocols through onboarding, monitoring, and feedback.

These pre-production steps ingrain quality standards for a smoothly run manufacturing process. Issues can be quickly identified via inspectors and testing at each stage. The result is flawless finished products that align with brand expectations.


Pre-production is the unseen engine that powers excellence in garment manufacturing. While the glamorous finished product rightfully gets the glory, it is during pre-production that the real work happens to transform designs into tangible, quality products.

The myriad pre-production steps we’ve explored—from design and prototyping to sourcing, costing, and quality control—lay the foundation for manufacturing success. Overlooking or rushing any of these processes can lead to massive headaches once production begins. By investing diligently in pre-production, brands ensure flawless products that delight customers.

For new brands, dedicating time upfront to perfect product details, fit, material sourcing, and factory relationships sets a sustainable trajectory for the future. Even established companies continually refine pre-production, using data and customer feedback to improve processes. The fast pace of fashion means there is always room for better planning.

Pre-production involves tackling complex product development puzzles and navigating tradeoffs between priorities like cost, quality, and speed. But embracing the planning process positions brands to thrive in a competitive landscape. With diligent pre-production, companies can get products to market faster, cheaper and better than ever before. The runway awaits.

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